This was not an industry supported study. The authors have indicated no financial conflicts of interest. Previous studies have shown that both short and long sleep durations are related to increased likelihood of diabetes and hypertension. However, the relation between sleep duration and cardiovascular disease CVD is not clear.
We examined the hypothesis that compared with sleep duration of 7 hours, shorter and longer sleep durations are independently related to CVD.
We found both short and long sleep durations to be independently associated with CVD, independent of age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and depression. This association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, race-ethnicity, and body mass index categories.
Also, similar associations were observed when we examined myocardial infarction and stroke separately. Compared with sleep duration of 7 h, there was a positive association between both shorter and longer sleep durations and CVD in a representative sample of US adults. These results suggest that sleep duration may be an important marker of CVD. This included studies that reported an association with CVD for short sleep duration only, 13 or long sleep duration only, 9, 11, 14 or both short and long sleep durations.
In this context, we examined the association between sleep duration and CVD, including CHD and stroke in the NHISa large, nationally representative sample of US adults after controlling for the effect of depression and other confounders. The study sample is derived from the NHIS, a survey of the civilian, non institutionalized household population of the United States.
The procedures involved in NHIS have been published in detail and are available online.
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Blacks and Hispanics are oversampled to provide stable estimates for these groups and the sample is weighted to account for the complex sampling design and for survey nonresponse. The primary outcome of interest in the current study was any CVD, defined as a physician diagnosis of myocardial infarction, angina or stroke. Age was included as a continuous variable. We categorized the covariates using definitions similar to the NHIS questionnaire.
Body mass index BMI was calculated with self-reported height and weight as weight in kilograms divided by height in meter squared. Overweight was defined as a BMI 25— We compared the characteristics of the study participants by categories of sleep duration employing the chi square test or analysis of variance, as appropriate. We chose sleep duration of 7 h as the reference category, as previous studies have shown this to be the optimal sleep duration.
In the first model, we adjusted for age years and sex.
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We also examined the association between sleep duration and our secondary outcomes, including myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke in separate analyses. To examine the consistency of the association between sleep duration and any CVD, we performed subgroup analysis stratified by potential confounders such as age, sex, race-ethnicity, and categories of BMI.The Ministry of Health and Welfare must approve an application to access this data.
Any researcher interested in accessing this dataset can submit an application form to the Ministry of Health and Welfare requesting access. The authors did not have any special access privileges that others would not have. This study explored whether cataract surgery precipitates diabetic retinopathy DR development in diabetic patients without previous DR.
Patients who received cataract surgery between January 1,and December 31,were included in the case group, and the control group was matched to the case group by age, sex, and index year.
The postoperative incidence rates of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy NPDRproliferative diabetic retinopathy PDRand diabetic macular edema DME were the main outcomes studied and were adjusted by age, sex, comorbidities, and statin, fibrate, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor ACEIoral hypoglycemic agents OHAand insulin use.
In our cohort, patients who had dyslipidemia and used statins were more likely to undergo cataract surgery. Cataract surgery with complications increased post-operative risks for NPDR were even higher, and the significant influence from cataract surgery persisted 5 years after surgery. Between anddiabetic retinopathy DR was ranked as the fifth most common cause of moderate-to-severe visual impairment worldwide [ 1 ]. Because its impact on working-age adults is profound, identifying risk factors for DR prevention and control is an important socioeconomic issue [ 23 ].
Risk factors for DR include duration of diabetes, earlier age of onset of diabetes, presence of neuropathy, and elevated systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycated hemoglobin A1C HbA1C [ 24 ]. In addition to these systemic factors, cataract extraction has been also identified as an important ocular factor associated with DR progression [ 56 ].
Cataracts may develop at an earlier age and may have a higher prevalence rate in patients with diabetes due to hyperglycemia [ 7 — 9 ] and the compromised blood—aqueous or blood—retina barriers [ 1011 ].
Breakdown of these barriers may also worsen postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in both extracapsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification, and this vicious cycle may instigate or expedite DR progression [ 1213 ]. Consequently, many studies have debated the relationship between cataract formation and DR progression and their risk factors.
Henricsson et al identified higher HbA1C, duration of diabetes, insulin treatment, and existence of macular edema as the risk factors for DR progression after cataract extraction [ 14 ]. Hong et al noticed that the rate of DR progression almost doubled after phacoemulsification 12 months postoperatively. However, less progression was reported for phacoemulsification than for intracapsular cataract extraction and extracapsular cataract extraction ECCE [ 15 ]. In a paired-eye study, Jaffe et al found that nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy NPDR progressed in 7 of 19 eyes following ECCE, whereas none progressed in the other eye without operation during the follow-up period of 18 months [ 6 ].
The BMI tool is a useful guide for anyone except pregnant women, athletes, people less than 5ft tall and those under 18 or over 60 years of age. Waist size is another good measure in addition to BMI. To measure your waist you should use a tape measure midway between the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips. Regardless of your BMI, a waist circumference of 94cm 37ins or above for men and 80cm BMI calculator. Can anyone use the calculator? BMI Calculator Enter your weight and height to calculate your body mass index.
Your Weight BMI Result. Recipes under calories.What drove top performance for banks last year will be very different from what drives top performance in Lower interest rates and the economic fallout from the coronavirus pandemic have forced banks to rework their business plans, and they will need to reprioritize the metrics they focus on in the process.
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Click on "view table" at the end of this article to see the ranking — which is based on return on average equity across three years — and use the links below to go to the rankings from past years. The three cuts, in July, September and October, reversed nearly all of the upward movement of the previous year. Contracting margins could have made a bigger dent in profitability, if the banks had not managed to contain expense growth, Hanley said. The median return on average equity for the institutions that fit the ranking criteria slipped by 25 basis points from a year earlier, to 9.
By comparison, the median for those in the top fell by 84 basis points, to The top enjoyed a median yield on average earning assets that was 14 basis points higher than the peer group — 4. Hanley recommended that banks focus more heavily on other measures to improve performance amid the uncertainty of the pandemic and the resulting business upheaval.
In addition to asset quality and expense control, he believes demand deposits will be a differentiator that helps separate the best from the rest. Though the core deposit ratio is a more commonly used measure, Hanley said that metric has become muddied lately, thanks to the proliferation of high-yield savings accounts.
He looks at demand deposits, a subset of core deposits, for better insight into the level of true core funding. For both the top and the larger peer group, core deposits as a share of total deposits fell last year, when compared with The core deposit ratio was a median of Though the top still have an edge in overall core deposits, they are not doing as well on demand deposits. They posted a median ratio of demand deposits to total deposits that is 79 basis points lower than that of the peer group.
The ratio was To receive a reply, the request for this subscriber bonus must be received by bonnie. Include the name of the subscriber and the name of the institution in the body of the email. Subscriptions will be verified and replies will follow after May Will pandemic reshuffle the top publicly traded community banks? May 06,p. Neither has been much of a concern for high-performing banks in a long time. View Table. Printer Friendly Version. Can leading performers stay on top of their game after pandemic?
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Fowler, IN9. Ranking is based on three-year average ROAE for to Additional data shown is for the 12 months ended Dec. Growth stats compare to Financials are sourced from SEC filings. If unavailable, regulatory financials were used. Excludes institutions that failed to report GAAP or regulatory data for any year during the ranking period. Excludes industrial banks and institutions that operated as a subchapter S corporation at any time during the ranking period.ASAP Articles are edited and published online ahead of issue.
See all articles. JOC publishes Special Issues that focus on timely topics in organic chemistry, featuring work by top authors in the field. JOC Perspectives are personal overviews of specialized research areas by acknowledged experts, and are invited by the Editor-in-Chief. Selected articles published in Org.258ci y-block ford at el mirage land speed races 2009
Read the Virtual Issue. The latest published issue of The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Select a subject area to discover related terms and applicable articles. Rankings are updated daily for previous 30 days below and previous 12 months.
Based on recommendations from the scientific editors of ACS Journals. Pair your accounts. Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect. Related Journals. Volume 85 Issue 14 July 17, Publication Date Web : July 8, Wanlin XiJiawei QiuPublication Date Web : June 24, Muhammad KazimPublication Date Web : July 7, Publication Date Web : July 3, Jiancheng WangPublication Date Web : July 10, Partly cloudy with a slight chance of thunderstorms.
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